José Goldemberg
BLOG POWER SOURCES : Environmental restrictions have caused delays and limitations of the hydropower project currently under construction in Brazil, mainly in the Amazon region. Going forward, we will only have the hydroelectric trickle, meaning we will not have plants with reservoir because of these issues?
PROF. GOLDEMBERG : This is what has happened since 1985 and the result is proving very problematic. Without reservoirs hydroelectric generation depends on the amount of rain that is very irregular. Precisely the purpose of the reservoir is to regulate the flow of water in hydroelectric. It was the lack of rain that led to the "blackout" of 2001.

BLOG POWER SOURCES : For an electrical system of any country, it is possible to maintain a safe, ie when there is demand supply power without dams with and without thermal reservoir, including nuclear?
PROF. GOLDEMBERG : With the-river hydroelectric power supply during dry periods of the year depends on thermal plants that are generally bad for the environment. Make reservoirs in many cases causes less environmental impact than using the thermal coal and fuel oil. You need to compare (environmental) costs and benefits and make decisions on that basis.

BLOG POWER SOURCES : What technological barriers that still exist to fully exploit the pre-salt? There are estimates, in an optimistic scenario, that maybe there were approximately 100 billion barrels of oil in pre-salt reserves. Do you believe this expectation and what the basis for such a prediction?
PROF. GOLDEMBERG : The optimistic estimates for the pre-salt (100 billion barrels) are exaggerated. Realistically, at the moment, one can only think of 10 or 15 billion which doubles the Brazilian oil reserves are estimated at 15 years (at the current rate of consumption of 2 million barrels per day). The pre-salt oil will be expensive - about $ 60 per barrel and one can not expect a very high production before 2020.

BLOG POWER SOURCES : What do you think the Japanese perspective of "zero" the nuclear source (about 30%) in the energy matrix and replace it with renewable sources, mainly wind and solar, by 2030, from the standpoint of continuous supply of energy, not to mention that, in the transition from one array to another, the thermal fossil fuels are triggered?
PROF. GOLDEMBERG : I think realistically. In the transition, the thermal fossil fuels will be triggered, but the rational use of energy in Japan (ie, greater emphasis on energy efficiency) is helping. Moreover, the cost of renewables is falling so that Japan can effectively abandon the nuclear option.

BLOG POWER SOURCES : China uses about 70% of coal in your array. Someday in the future, with growth mainly renewable, we can expect this country to decrease the use of this fuel, for example, somewhere around 40% (below the U.S.)?
PROF. GOLDEMBERG : Yes, because China is using both because coal-fired power plants in the country are the old generation with low efficiency. The new combined cycle power plants and has other enhancements that will produce more electricity by burning the same amount of coal.

BLOG POWER SOURCES : The smat grid has any chance of being implemented in Brazil in the next 10 years? 
PROF. GOLDEMBERG : Yes, there are already pioneering demonstration projects under implementation (in Aparecida do Norte, for example) and ANEEL lowered ordinances that will allow the use of this technology throughout the country especially in distant cities not affected by the network and where electricity is very face.
BLOG POWER SOURCES : What is the opinion of Mr. regarding MP 579 adopted by the government on 11/09/12?
PROF. GOLDEMBERG : Hasty. It is unrealistic to expect that the electricity cost 20% lower renewing concessions of generating electricity. Generation represents only 10% of the final cost of electricity. The rest of the cost comes from the transmission, distribution and taxes. Lower the cost of generation is possible, but will not reduce the electricity bill without the other costs are also reduced.

BLOG POWER SOURCES : Thermal biomass are viable from an economic standpoint and capacity of power supply?
PROF. GOLDEMBERG : Clear and in São Paulo about 2,000 megawatts are already being marketed. Could be 6,000 megawatts if adjustments were made ​​in new electricity auctions. The stubbornness of the government not to make separate bids for the different forms of energy is that it is responsible for the low utilization of this great resource that we have is to produce electricity from sugarcane bagasse.

Professor José Goldemberg has a doctorate in physical sciences, USP, being recognized worldwide for their outstanding work and great knowledge. He held various positions in relevant federal and state governments in Brazil, such as Secretary of Environment of the Republic Presidency, Minister of Education of the Federal Government and Secretary of the Environment of the State of São Paulo.

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